To compare selenium detectors with three conventional and digital detector systems for the detection of simulated pulmonary lesions.Templates containing nodules, linear structures, and micronodular opacities were superimposed over an anthropomorphic chest phantom. The authors compared lesion detection with use of storage phosphor radiography (250 speed), selenium radiography (250 speed) with an antiscatter grid, selenium radiography (450 speed) without an antiscatter grid, an asymmetric screen-film system (400 speed), and a conventional screen-film system (250 speed). Detection performance of 10 radiologists was compared by using a multireader-multicase receiver operating characteristic analysis of variance.For the detection of nodules, no statistically significant differences between imaging modes were seen. For the detection of micronodules and linear lesions, both selenium techniques were superior to all other modes (P < .05). In addition, the asymmetric screen-film radiographs were inferior (P < .05) to the conventional screen-film radiographs and to storage phosphor radiographs for the detection of micronodules.The selenium detector improves detection of simulated fine linear and low-contrast micronodular details and appears to be superior to other detector systems for chest radiography.