Diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in lung cancer screening Computed Tomography scans: independent contribution of emphysema, air trapping and bronchial wall thickening
O.M. Mets, M. Schmidt, C.F. Buckens, M.J. Gondrie, I. Išgum, M. Oudkerk, R. Vliegenthart, H.J. de Koning, C.M. van der Aalst, M. Prokop, J.J. Lammers, P. Zanen, F.A.A. Mohamed Hoesein, W.P. Mali, B. van Ginneken, E.M. van Rikxoort and P.A. de Jong
BACKGROUND: Beyond lung cancer, screening CT contains additional information on other smoking related diseases (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD). Since pulmonary function testing is not regularly incorporated in lung cancer screening, imaging biomarkers for COPD are likely to provide important surrogate measures for disease evaluation. Therefore, this study aims to determine the independent diagnostic value of CT emphysema, CT air trapping and CT bronchial wall thickness for COPD in low-dose screening CT scans. METHODS: Prebronchodilator spirometry and volumetric inspiratory and expiratory chest CT were obtained on the same day in 1140 male lung cancer screening participants. Emphysema, air trapping and bronchial wall thickness were automatically quantified in the CT scans. Logistic regression analysis was performed to derivate a model to diagnose COPD. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques. RESULTS: Each of the three CT biomarkers independently contributed diagnostic value for COPD, additional to age, body mass index, smoking history and smoking status. The diagnostic model that included all three CT biomarkers had a sensitivity and specificity of 73.2% and 88. respectively. The positive and negative predictive value were 80.2% and 84.2 respectively. Of all participants, 82.8% was assigned the correct status. The C-statistic was 0.87, and the Net Reclassification Index compared to a model without any CT biomarkers was 44.4 However, the added value of the expiratory CT data was limited, with an increase in Net Reclassification Index of 4.5% compared to a model with only inspiratory CT data. CONCLUSION: Quantitatively assessed CT emphysema, air trapping and bronchial wall thickness each contain independent diagnostic information for COPD, and these imaging biomarkers might prove useful in the absence of lung function testing and may influence lung cancer screening strategy. Inspiratory CT biomarkers alone may be sufficient to identify patients with COPD in lung cancer screening setting.